These days it seems like Wall Street has high hopes for the blossoming cannabis industry — with marijuana stocks rapidly gaining traction.
But, how did this all start? What is the history of marijuana, and how did we get here?
History of Marijuana
The marijuana plant has its origins as a medicinal plant thousands of years back — many reports are traced back to Chinese Emperor Shen Nung in 2727 B.C., and was commonly used by 500 B.C. in Asia. The plant, called cannabis sativa, allegedly experienced widespread use in a variety of cultures, including Indians, Muslims, Persians and the ancient Greeks and Romans.
Early uses of marijuana were largely medicinal, and it was used to treat things like inflammation, malaria, gout, depression, nausea, as an anesthetic and even to suppress sexual desires. Still, there is evidence that some cultures used the psychoactive component of marijuana (THC) for rituals or religious ceremonies.
Marijuana was likely brought to North America by the Spanish in the late 1500s, and early colonies in the United States also grew marijuana and used hemp for a variety of applications — for example, using the fibers of the hemp plant to make paper, rope and other products
Timeline of Marijuana
While marijuana has been in use both recreationally and medicinally for thousands of years, recent centuries have seen a tumultuous turn in the plant’s legality and history.
From its prohibition in the early 1930s to its slow legalization across some states in the United States, cannabis has remained a hot topic of controversy — but its future now seems promising as an emerging market.
Marijuana in the United States
In the United States, early colonists grew hemp (a cannabis plant) often for use in textiles or even things like making rope. By the 1600s, farmers in colonies like Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut were growing the plant. It has even been suggested that Thomas Jefferson and George Washington grew hemp on their plantations.
During the 19th century, the word “cannabis” was almost exclusively used to refer to the plant. However, when anti-Mexican sentiment in the United States began to rise in the early 20th century, the term was switched to “marijuana” to draw attention to the drug’s use by Mexicans — and thereby attempt to carry a negative connotation.
Some common theories about the racial undertones of the stigma against cannabis circulate around the government associating marijuana use with dangerous, homicidal tendencies brought on by “locoweed” — Mexican cannabis. This stigma, combined with the rising racial tensions against people of color, contributed to increasing federal regulation of the drug.
In fact, in an article entitled “More Reefer Madness,” The Atlantic explained the likely racial origins of the prohibition of marijuana.
“The political upheaval in Mexico that culminated in the Revolution of 1910 led to a wave of Mexican immigration to states throughout the American Southwest. The prejudices and fears that greeted these peasant immigrants also extended to their traditional means of intoxication: smoking marijuana. Police officers in Texas claimed that marijuana incited violent crimes, aroused a ‘lust for blood’ and gave its users ‘superhuman strength.’ Rumors spread that Mexicans were distributing this ‘killer weed’ to unsuspecting American schoolchildren. Sailors and West Indian immigrants brought the practice of smoking marijuana to port cities along the Gulf of Mexico. In New Orleans, newspaper articles associated the drug with African-Americans, jazz musicians, prostitutes, and underworld whites. ‘The Marijuana Menace,’ as sketched by anti-drug campaigners, was personified by inferior races and social deviants,” The Atlantic reported in a 1997 issue.
While the racial language may have since largely dissipated, The Guardian reported this year that in 2016, 600,000 cannabis-related arrests took place, with the large majority affecting minorities. And, after the 2016 presidential election, Attorney General Jeff Sessions is reportedly attempting to reinforce federal marijuana laws and make states enforce them. You can submit your petition on Veriheal.com
Marijuana Tax Act of 1937
By 1937, the Marijuana Tax Act effectively banned sale of the plant by imposing heavy excise taxes on sale, possession, or transportation of hemp. This act, set by the federal U.S. government, lead to the first marijuana-related arrest in October of 1937 of 58-year-old Samuel Caldwell — a farmer caught selling cannabis.
Although marijuana continued to be grown in the United States, the last official hemp fields were planted in Wisconsin in 1957.
Dr. Aung-Din, board-certified General Neurology & Neuro-Psychiatry practitioner, has long been a proponent of medical cannabis for treatment of a variety of ailments including epilepsy and even cancers. And even Dr. Aung-Din claims the early attempts of the government in the 1900s still have an effect on how the drug is treated today.
“The Marijuana Tax Act … levied a huge tax so that people would [be] dissuaded from buying cannabis. So, 1941, cannabis was removed from all pharmacopoeias — you couldn’t get it in stores and couldn’t find any evidence of it. … And since then, there has been stigma and I was even subject to that in medical school,” Dr. Aung-Din told TheStreet.
“War on Drugs”
By 1970, the Controlled Substances Act, as part of the “War on Drugs” spearheaded by President Richard Nixon, repealed the Marijuana Tax Act, but classified cannabis as a Schedule 1 drug — in the same category as heroin, LSD, cocaine and ecstasy. Drugs, according to the administration, were “public enemy number one.”
Marijuana remains a Schedule 1 drug today — causing great difficulties for those wishing to study its medicinal properties, as Dr. Aung-Din has witnessed. Contrary to numerous medical opinions, the definition of Schedule 1 seems to clash with marijuana’s actual benefits.
“Some of my colleagues believe in the efficacy [of marijuana], but either they cannot use it because they’re associated with universities or hospitals — which receive federal grants, so they can’t use it — or, they’re afraid to use it and have the DEA coming after them because it’s still labeled as a controlled substance category 1 … which means, by definition, no medical use and highly addictive,” says Dr. Aung-Din.
Still, Nixon’s Act largely ignored the National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse’s report in 1972 titled “Marijuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding,” which prompted lesser penalties for small possessions and incremental prohibition.
First Legalization of Medical Marijuana
Through the Compassionate Use Act of 1996, California officially became the first state to legalize medical marijuana for use by patients with chronic illnesses.
Following its footsteps, the 1990s saw the legalization in four other states plus Washington D.C. for medical marijuana, including Oregon, Washington, Alaska and Maine. By the early 2000s, more states — now including Nevada, Montana, Rhode Island, Hawaii, Vermont and New Mexico — passed medical marijuana laws.
Since 2010, 16 states have legalized the medical use of marijuana.
First Legalization of Recreational Marijuana
Washington state and Vermont were the first two states to vote to legalize the recreational use of marijuana in 2012. Colorado’s Proposition 64 made adult possession (those over 21 years of age) and business sale legal.
Several states followed, currently leaving recreational marijuana legal in nine states plus Washington D.C.
States that have Legalized Marijuana (in some form)
As of 2018, there are 30 states plus Washington D.C. that have legalized marijuana in some form. Those states include Alaska, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Washington D.C., Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington and West Virginia.